Spelling Rules of ING

Sources

Overview of Rules

Group Rule Exceptions
in general adding ing
ending in a CONSONANT+e changing to ing
ending in ie changing to ying
ending in CVC (one syllable) adding C+ing
ending in CVC (one syllable; ending in w, x or y) adding ing
ending in CVC (multiple syllables; stressed at the last) adding C+ing
ending in CVC (multiple syllables; NOT stressed at the last) adding ing one known
ending in CV+l adding l+ing some in US

Rules with Details

  1. The general rule when changing a verb into its -ING form is just to add -ING to the end of the verb.
  2. exceptions
    1. If the verb ends in an E we remove the E and add ING.
    2. If the verb ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant (CVC), we double the final consonant and add ING.
      1. exceptions: we do not double the final consonant when the verb ends in W, X or Y or when the final syllable is not emphasized.
        1. examples: fixing, enjoying, snowing
        2. exceptions: kidnapping
      2. exceptions: If a multi-syllable verb ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant (CVC), we do not double the final consonant when the stress is not on the last syllable.
    3. If the verb ends in IE we change it to YING.
      1. examples: lying, dying, tying
    4. If the verb ends in consonant + vowel + L (CV+l), we normally double the final L and add ING.
      1. examples: travelling, marvelling, equalling
      2. exceptions: In the United States (US) they do not double the L when the accent is on the first syllable.
        1. examples: traveling, marveling, equaling
      3. emphases: In US, double L when the stress is on the last syllable
        1. examples: controlling
    5. If the verb ends in a stressed vowel + R, we double the final R and add ING.
      1. examples: referring, deferring
    6. If the verb ends in an unstressed vowel + R, we do not double the final R and add ING.
      1. examples: offering, suffering, whispering

Related


* cached version, generated at 2021-10-31 20:56:17 UTC.

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